Any contacts or calendar entries that were added after ActiveSync was set up will sync up to the Webmail. You will be able to log into Webmail and see them. However, any items that existed on your phone before you set up ActiveSync will not sync up to the server.
One exception to that is with iPhone contacts or calendars that are synced with iCloud rather than saved to the device. ActiveSync will not sync any information that is stored with iCloud rather than locally on the device.
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References: https://knowledge.web.com/subjects/arti ... 1006/en-us